An article published by INNOPATHS researchers Benjamin K.
Sovacool, Andrew Hook, Mari Martiskainen, Andrea Brock and Bruno Turnheim has
been featured in the Research Highlights sections of recent issues of both NatureHuman Behaviour and Nature Climate
Change. The article, The decarbonisation divide: Contextualizing
landscapes of low-carbon exploitation and toxicity in Africa, analyses the
‘decarbonisation divide’ between low-carbon transition and patterns of waste
extraction. The decarbonisation divide (Nature
Human Behaviour) highlights the potential environmental and human cost of
supply chains for low-carbon technologies, whilst Dark side of low carbon (Nature Climate Change) focusses on the analysis of the impact
of the rising demand for low-carbon technologies on countries responsible for
extraction of raw materials and disposal.
https://innopaths.eu/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/desert-mining-800x500-1.jpg500800innopathshttps://innopaths.eu/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/innopaths-logo.pnginnopaths2020-03-25 16:54:292021-04-29 07:36:52INNOPATHS article featured in Research Highlights in Nature Human Behaviour and Nature Climate Change
The energy-consuming activities carried out in buildings are
extremely diverse. Examples spread from boiling water for a cup of tea in the
UK and working on a computer in an American bank to using an air conditioner in
India or cooking with traditional biomass in Africa. Due to this diversity,
there will be no one-size-fits-all solution to decrease energy demand in buildings.
Instead, reducing energy demand requires a flurry of solutions to be explored,
mixing both technological and behavioural approaches. In a recent study, we
analyse the manifold opportunities that buildings offer to reduce energy demand,
and compute their potential at the global level.
Reducing demand for space heating and space cooling can take many forms. Improved insulation and the use of efficient air conditioners or heat pumps have the greatest potential to reduce energy consumption for these purposes. Currently, only a small proportion of buildings are properly insulated and the standard materials used to improve building shells are much less efficient than state-of-the-art materials. Similarly with air conditioners and heat pumps: these appliances remain far from their theoretical maximum efficiency. By using best-practice insulation practices and improving the efficiency of heating and cooling technologies, a lot can be achieved. Additionally, by reducing the indoor temperature in cold climates or increasing it in hot climates, energy consumption can significantly fall. Decreasing the demand for floorspace also has an impact, but it remains modest in comparison to the other factors.
Figure 1 The figure shows three scenarios for global energy demand in buildings and their outcome in 2050 and 2100 (grey columns). In the Low and Very Low energy demand scenarios, we assumed ambitious measures to decrease energy demand. The coloured area attributes the reductions to individual actions. The red line shows the level of global demand in 2015.
Hot water plays an important role in our
daily tasks, be it for personal hygiene or washing clothes and dishes. By
reducing the number and length of showers, our energy requirements can be
lowered notably. Hot water needs can also be reduced by using efficient showerheads
with a flow of only 2.8 L/min compared to the current US standard of
9.5 L/min. Other ways of reducing hot water needs include using more
efficient washing machines and wearing the same clothes more often before
Overall, we show that energy demand could be halved in the
long term by taking advantage of the numerous opportunities to cut down the
need for energy in buildings. Because of the ambitious measures assumed in this
study, we consider this potential to be close to its maximum.
The future might be bright for energy efficiency in
buildings, but there are also important reasons for concern. Some of the measures
mentioned above require new technologies to break efficiency thresholds: for
instance aerogels or vacuum-insulation panels are very promising materials for
insulation, but they are currently at development stage in laboratories. A huge
effort in research is needed to bring very efficient technologies onto the
markets, and supporting schemes will be necessary to raise their market shares
and reduce their costs. Unfortunately, the construction sector is not famous
for its propensity to innovate; it is one the most conservative sectors in the
economy, investing a very low share of its revenues in research and
development. Considering top companies alone, the construction sector spends
around 1% of its gross turnover on R&D, only a tenth of what companies in
pharmaceutics and information technologies invest.
Changes in behaviours and practices also bear their level of
challenges. It is difficult to think of policies that could have a significant
and sustainable effect on people’s preferences and habits. For instance,
experiments have been conducted to measure the impact of alternative energy
bills on electricity consumption, but the effect was modest and not sustained
in time. Furthermore, these policies touch on sensitive ethical issues: to what
extent should decision-makers try to influence citizens’ preferences?
Despite these caveats, the potential for energy demand
reduction is large and concerns many activities carried out in buildings. There
is a lot of freedom in the way people arrange their energy practices, combining
technologies and behaviours, and individuals as well as policy makers should
make use of it.
Levesque A., Pietzcker R. C., Luderer G.
energy demand from buildings: the impact of low consumption practices, Technological Forecasting and Social
https://innopaths.eu/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/office-building-_-energy-use-in-buildings-blog.jpg368743Antoine Levesquehttps://innopaths.eu/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/innopaths-logo.pngAntoine Levesque2020-03-19 17:57:182021-04-29 07:36:52Large impact of efficient technologies and behaviours on energy demand in buildings
Climate change mitigation will create new natural resource and supply chain opportunities and dilemmas, because substantial amounts of raw materials will be required to build new low-carbon energy devices and infrastructure (1). However, despite attempts at improved governance and better corporate management, procurement of many mineral and metal resources occurs in areas generally acknowledged for mismanagement, remains environmentally capricious, and, in some cases, is a source of conflict at the sites of resource extraction (2). These extractive and smelting industries have thus left a legacy in many parts of the world of environmental degradation, adverse impacts to public health, marginalized communities and workers, and biodiversity damage. We identify key sustainability challenges with practices used in industries that will supply the metals and minerals—including cobalt, copper, lithium, cadmium, and rare earth elements (REEs)—needed for technologies such as solar photovoltaics, batteries, electric vehicle (EV) motors, wind turbines, fuel cells, and nuclear reactors. We then propose four holistic recommendations to make mining and metal processing more sustainable and just and to make the mining and extractive industries more efficient and resilient.
Written by Benjamin K. Sovacool, Saleem H. Ali, Morgan Bazilian, Ben Radley, Benoit Nemery, Julia Okatz and Dustin Mulvaney.
https://innopaths.eu/wp-content/uploads/2020/01/Science-logo-S.jpg200200Benjamin K. Sovacool, Saleem H. Ali, Morgan Bazilian, Ben Radley, Benoit Nemery, Julia Okatz and Dustin Mulvaney.https://innopaths.eu/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/innopaths-logo.pngBenjamin K. Sovacool, Saleem H. Ali, Morgan Bazilian, Ben Radley, Benoit Nemery, Julia Okatz and Dustin Mulvaney.2020-01-03 17:16:592021-04-29 07:36:52Sustainable minerals and metals for a low-carbon future
Much academic research on low-carbon transitions focuses on the diffusion or use of innovations such as electric vehicles or solar panels, but overlooks or obscures downstream and upstream processes, such as mining or waste flows. Yet it is at these two extremes where emerging low-carbon transitions in mobility and electricity are effectively implicated in toxic pollution, biodiversity loss, exacerbation of gender inequality, exploitation of child labor, and the subjugation of ethnic minorities. We conceptualize these processes as part of an emerging “decarbonisation divide.” To illustrate this divide with clear insights for political ecology, sustainability transitions, and energy justice research, this study draws from extensive fieldwork examining cobalt mining in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and the processing and recycling of electronic waste in Ghana. It utilizes original data from 34 semi-structured research interviews with experts and 69 community interviews with artisanal cobalt miners, e-waste scrapyard workers, and other stakeholders, as well as 50 site visits. These visits included 30 industrial and artisanal cobalt mines in the DRC, as well as associated infrastructure such as trading depots and processing centers, and 20 visits to the Agbogbloshie scrapyard and neighborhood alongside local waste collection sites, electrical repair shops, recycling centers, and community e-waste dumps in Ghana. The study proposes a concerted set of policy recommendations for how to better address issues of exploitation and toxicity, suggestions that go beyond the often-touted solutions of formalisation or financing. Ultimately, the study holds that we must all, as researchers, planners, and citizens, broaden the criteria and analytical parameters we use to evaluate the sustainability of low-carbon transitions.
Written by Benjamin K. Sovacool, Andrew Hook, Mari Martiskainen, Andrea Brock and Bruno Turnheim
https://innopaths.eu/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/Elsevier-thumbnail.jpg230230Benjamin K. Sovacool, Andrew Hook, Mari Martiskainen, Andrea Brock and Bruno Turnheimhttps://innopaths.eu/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/innopaths-logo.pngBenjamin K. Sovacool, Andrew Hook, Mari Martiskainen, Andrea Brock and Bruno Turnheim2019-12-26 17:34:002021-04-29 07:36:52The decarbonisation divide: Contextualizing landscapes of low-carbon exploitation and toxicity in Africa
The paper explores the myriad potential benefits of four low-carbon transitions beyond those in the environmental or economic domain. Drawn from a rich set of original mixed methods data—across expert interviews, focus groups, and public internet forums—we examine the presumed multidimensional, qualitative co-benefits to nuclear power in France, solar photovoltaics in Germany, electric vehicles in Norway, and smart meters in Great Britain. We cataloged 128 identified prospective co-benefits to these four European low-carbon transitions, 30 for nuclear power, 30 for solar photovoltaic panels, 26 for electric vehicles and 42 for smart meters. Tellingly, 37 of these collective benefits are identified as economic and 14 environmental, but the remaining ones illustrate a broader spectrum of technical benefits (31 in total), social benefits (30 in total) and political benefits (16 in total). After presenting this body of evidence, the paper then discusses these benefits more deeply in terms of complementarity, temporality, scale, actors, and incumbency. We conclude with insights for energy and climate research and policy more broadly.
Written by Benjamin K. Sovacool, Mari Martiskainen, Andrew Hook and Lucy Baker
https://innopaths.eu/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/Elsevier-thumbnail.jpg230230Benjamin K. Sovacool, Mari Martiskainen, Andrew Hook and Lucy Bakerhttps://innopaths.eu/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/innopaths-logo.pngBenjamin K. Sovacool, Mari Martiskainen, Andrew Hook and Lucy Baker2019-11-20 17:38:212021-04-29 07:36:52Beyond cost and carbon: The multidimensional co-benefits of low carbon transitions in Europe
Continuous renewable energy deployment may be less certain than previously thought. If interest rates rise, the cost of renewable energy is disproportionately affected compared to fossil fuel alternatives. Thermostatic policies can help ensuring renewable energy deployment in such environments.
Image above: Continuous deployment of wind farms may be less certain than previously thought. Aerial take from a wind farm. Photo by Thomas Richter on Unsplash
Unfortunately, no rooftop bar in Singapore and no conference dinner in the foothills of Tuscany mark the beginning of this research project. Instead, the development of this paper demonstrates the gradual nature of research. Over the last two years, we spent an awful lot of time discussing the role of finance in the energy transition as part of the EU Horizon 2020 research project INNOPATHS. We met with investors to try to understand their behaviour, we interviewed policymakers to figure out what their intentions and constraints were in designing policy and we collaborated with academics to find out what exactly we already know about the enabling role of finance in energy transitions.
In this process, we discovered
the pivotal role of experience in the financial sector, which led to a paper in Nature Energy
(free read-only) demonstrating that
decreasing financing costs contributed a large share to making renewable energy
cost competitive with fossil fuel alternatives. In fact we discovered not only
the importance of experience, but even more so the decisive role that general
interest rates play in determining the competitiveness of renewable energy. Our
analysis showed that lower general interest rates decreased the levelised cost
of electricity (LCOE) by 4% to 20% for utility-scale German solar photovoltaics
and onshore wind respectively between the period of 2000-2005 and 2017. Soon we
asked ourselves; to what extent does large-scale renewable energy deployment
depend on extremely expansive monetary policy as we have seen it in the
aftermath of the 2008/09 financial crisis?
So we set off to find out. In a new paper in Nature
read-only), we looked at the same two technologies, onshore wind and solar
PV, in Germany and developed three scenarios. A flat scenario, where interest
rates stay at the current record-low levels. A moderate scenario, where
interest rates recover with the same speed as they declined after the financial
crisis. And an extreme scenario, where interest rates rise to pre-crisis levels
at twice the speed they declined before. In the extreme scenario, LCOEs for the
two technologies increase by 11% (solar photovoltaics) and 25% (onshore wind)
over just five years (2018 to 2023). Even in the moderate scenario, the higher
financing costs outweigh the expected decreases of hardware cost for onshore
wind (LCOE +9%) and almost entirely eat up these technology cost reductions due
to learning (LCOE -2%) for solar photovoltaics. As a result, we show that
adding new renewable energy capacity becomes economically unviable compared to
hard coal power plants takes a severe hit if interest rates rise again.
In light of the recent EU decision to scrap binding renewable energy deployment targets for member states these results may announce difficult times for renewable electricity deployment and hence climate targets. However, one may ask, are these scenarios realistic? The temptation is to respond with a sounding no. Just this month, the European Central Bank confirmed record-low interest rates, its president Mario Draghi openly speaks of evaluating new ideas, such as venturing more into fiscal domains using the Modern Monetary Theory, and there is an ongoing debate about expanding the toolkit of central banks to provide cheap liquidity. In the United States, the central bank acted differently: it steadily increased interest rates since December 2015, until it changed course in August 2019 and lowered the interest rate twice. Some commentators see more structural factors (e.g., aging population, low immigration, few investment opportunities) behind the ongoing struggle to unleash economic growth and judge expansionary monetary policy as the wrong remedy for the curse. Proponents of the secular stagnation, like Larry Summers, would favour rising interest rates in combination with rising government spending in education and infrastructure and potentially more liberal immigration laws.
In sum, the discussions around
appropriate monetary policy and hence future interest rate levels are far from
being resolved. While interest rates currently remain low in the European
context, it is far from certain that this will be the case in the future too.
Consequently, climate policy and renewable energy policy in particular need to
keep an eye on interest rate developments. Ideally, thermostatic policies would
be in place that automatically adjust given the current interest rate
environment. In the short run, renewable energy auctions fulfil this criteria
and counter potential cost hits on renewables due to interest rate increases.
In the longer run however, a transition away from renewable specific support
policies seems likely. In such a case, existing emission trading schemes, such
as the EU or the Californian ETS, could be equipped with a price floor to
ensure renewable energy deployment even in high interest rates environments.
Unfortunately, even countries such as Germany, which used to be known for progressive renewable energy policies, remain rather far from this ideal. For example, to reach its Paris target, Germany would need to install about 5 new wind turbines a day, but only connected 35 to the grid so far this year. A natural next step for research would hence be to investigate, how significant interest groups can be formed to support thermostatic policies and how these policies can be designed in order to survive government changes after elections. Comparing the results of our paper with reality, we circle back to the start and find the next exciting research question… Perhaps we should have a kick-off meeting at a fancy place this time!
https://innopaths.eu/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/Florian-blog-image-scaled.jpg12692560Florian Eglihttps://innopaths.eu/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/innopaths-logo.pngFlorian Egli2019-11-13 16:09:562021-04-29 07:36:53Central banking and the energy transition
Several studies have recently evaluated the feasibility of 100% renewable energy-based energy systems in different world regions. In a recent article, Bogdanov et al.1 contribute to this literature, by using an energy system model that takes into account the unique conditions of 145 global subregions, including factors such as renewable energy (RE) resource conditions, structure and age of existing capacities, demand patterns, etc. Based on their results, they discuss transition pathways and calculate the 2050 levelized cost of electricity generation (LCOE) of 100% RE-based energy systems in those 145 subregions. While the paper provides a new high-resolution analysis of 100% RE systems, we believe that it falls short of adequately considering large differences in the cost of capital (CoC) when comparing the LCOE between countries. As a result, Fig. 2 in Bogdanov et al. shows the lowest LCOEs for solar photovoltaic (PV)-based systems in countries such as the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Sudan, which seems at odds with the high investment risks and very low installed capacity in both countries2. Accounting for CoC differences between countries changes the results dramatically, as we show in Fig. 1. We therefore argue that using uniform CoC can lead to distorted policy recommendations.
Written by Florian Egli, Bjarne Steffen and Tobias S. Schmidt
https://innopaths.eu/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/Nature-logo-1.jpg300300Florian Egli, Bjarne Steffen and Tobias S. Schmidthttps://innopaths.eu/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/innopaths-logo.pngFlorian Egli, Bjarne Steffen and Tobias S. Schmidt2019-10-09 17:08:092021-04-29 07:36:53Bias in energy system models with uniform cost of capital assumption
Lived experiences of cobalt miners in the DRC and e-waste workers in
We are living in a society that
relies heavily on digital technology, and these technologies have become so
engrained in our everyday lives that we rarely question where they come from,
whose labour contributes to their existence and what happens after we dispose
of it. Some technologies, such as electric vehicles, solar panels, and heat
pumps, also rely on both degrees of digitization and many of the same metals,
minerals, and components as digital technologies.
How many of us have thought about
purchasing an electric vehicle, or installing solar panels on our home? Or, perhaps
more commonly, how many of us have found ourselves automatically agreeing to an
“upgrade” with our phone network provider after our smartphone stopped working
shortly after the end of a two-year contract?
A transition to a more
sustainable economy will require joint efforts from corporations and
governments to work towards a circular economy, to decrease the impact of
products on our planet across their lifecycle, starting from what raw materials
we use to how waste is handled. But how will this impact people working at
different stages of the product’s lifecycle—especially the front end (mining
and extractive industries) and back end (recycling and waste management)— in
parts of the world with weak governance structures and lack of policy
enforcement and accountability?
A set of two recent twin studies have looked at cobalt mining in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and toxic electronic waste (e-waste) processing in Ghana. These two studies set out to humanise the challenges of both these sectors by revealing the lived experiences of cobalt miners and e-waste workers.
Cobalt miners and scrapyard workers in the DRC and Ghana, 2019
Giving a voice to people whose
experiences are rarely considered in decision-making processes put the impact
of our addiction to digital technologies into stark light.
The Democratic Republic of Congo
produces roughly 60% of the global supply of cobalt, which is used in our phones
and computers, as well as other technologies such as electric vehicles, wind
turbines and solar panels. Despite
having vast natural resources, 63% of Congolese citizens live below the
national poverty line of less than $1 per day.
In the DRC, corporate firms and mining associations operate with
perhaps as much power as government actors, with miners finding themselves at
the bottom of the hierarchy of interests. Many of these miners work in
conditions that harms their health and even endangers their life. In many cases
they have no protective equipment or tools to work with, so they have to dig by
hand. There are no trade unions to protect their interests or cooperatives that
could fight for improved conditions.
The situation is similar
with toxic e-waste workers in Ghana. Negative health impacts among scrapyard
residents and workers, child labour and environmental pollution are ubiquitous.
Unheard voices can also help highlight the other side of the
story. People trapped in poverty in areas with almost no opportunities for
formal employment have lower expectations when it comes to working conditions.
Cobalt mining in the DRG and work on the scrapyard in Agbogbloshie, Accra have provided a route out
of poverty for the community. When you are offered two and a half times
above the average income of informal economic workers in the country and you
have a family to feed, you don’t think about the health impacts.
Many workers we spoke as part of
our research showed pride in their work, which has become a key part of their
cultural identity. One of our expert interviewees in Ghana explained
“We call it e-waste, but people on the
ground do not call it that … Scrap dealers do not identify as waste managers,
they instead see themselves as harvesting commodities as part of a lively value
chain. They are community stewards”.
Discontinuing cobalt mining or
e-waste processing in these countries without thinking about the people who
will be impacted on the ground will have disastrous consequences. We don’t have
to look too far to see, how, phasing out certain industries without thinking
about providing alternative employment opportunities can destroy a community.
A thoughtful response to a challenging situation is needed. Our research explores what policy makers can do at a global as well as national level to tackle the challenges arising. One thing is key: when thinking about a sustainable future, we need to remember the unheard voices, lives sacrificed at the altar of consumerism. Solutions need to consider their future and how we can shift away from harmful practices while also offering alternative pathways out of poverty in a way that preserves the community’s pride and identity.
Finally, you might ask, what we
can do as consumers. We can remember that our phones and EVs don’t come from
nowhere and don’t just go away. The “away” is a very real, living, breathing,
suffering “place”). But also, it is a place with pride.
The research summarized here is published in the following two studies,
both peer-reviewed academic journals, and both a part of the INNOPATHS project:
Sovacool, BK. “The
precarious political economy of cobalt: Balancing prosperity, poverty, and
brutality in artisanal and industrial mining in the Democratic Republic of the
Congo,” Extractive Industries & Society 6(3) (July, 2019), pp. 915-939.
Available at https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1ZjZH_,52Irqxfa.
Sovacool, BK. “Toxic transitions in the lifecycle externalities of a
digital society: The complex afterlives of electronic waste in Ghana,” Resources
Policy 64 (December, 2019), 101459,
pp-1-21. Available at https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1ZrGM14YFwvkMb.
https://innopaths.eu/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/ditigal-technologies-blog-image.jpg28014198Nora Blascsok and Benjamin K. Sovacoolhttps://innopaths.eu/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/innopaths-logo.pngNora Blascsok and Benjamin K. Sovacool2019-10-09 10:08:132021-04-29 07:36:53Unheard voices across the lifecycle of digital technologies and low-carbon transitions
Light Rapid Transit (LRT) systems are often backed not only because they satisfy basic mobility functions, but because they can revitalize urban centers, affirm the legitimacy of state planners, support innovation and even cultivate an image of a city or region as progressive and modern. In this study, we argue that electrified, automated LRT systems can fulfill private functional frames, private symbolic frames, societal functional frames, and societal symbolic frames. In particular, we argue that light rail can fulfill private functional frames (making passengers feel safe, offering a cheap and efficient mode of transport), private symbolic frames (signifying political identity or exclusionary planning), societal functional frames (environmental stewardship), and societal symbolic frames (such as modernism or innovativeness, or the lack of it). Essentially, these frames encompass not only what light rail is and does, but what it means and represents, and even some of its failures and challenges. The article then identifies ten specific frames associated with two case studies of automated light rail systems, the established Docklands Light Rail (DLR) in the United Kingdom, and the emerging Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) in Poland. We find that the DLR is not only a vital part of meeting (functional) demand for mobility, it is innovative and exciting to ride, legitimation of a conservative approach to project development, a social injustice (to some), an environmentally friendly alternative to cars, and a perceived magnet for global investment into the greater Docklands area. Similarly, the PRT is not only a reliable and safe mode of transit, but also a technical marvel, a monopoly breaking symbol, a clean and sustainable form of mobility, and a reflection of either progressive Polish innovation and entrepreneurship, or enduring failure.
Written by Benjamin K. Sovacool and Asieh Haieri Yazdi
https://innopaths.eu/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/Elsevier-thumbnail.jpg230230Benjamin K. Sovacool and Asieh Haieri Yazdihttps://innopaths.eu/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/innopaths-logo.pngBenjamin K. Sovacool and Asieh Haieri Yazdi2019-09-05 17:57:142021-04-29 07:40:15Technological frames and the politics of automated electric Light Rail Rapid Transit in Poland and the United Kingdom
Modern energy systems have tended towards centralized control by states, and national and multinational energy companies. This implicates the power of elites in realizing low-carbon transitions. In particular, low-carbon transitions can create, perpetuate, challenge, or entrench the power of elites. Using a critical lens that draws from geography, political science, innovation studies, and social justice theory (among others), this article explores the ways in which transitions can exacerbate, reconfigure or be shaped by “elite power.” It does so by offering a navigational approach that surveys a broad collection of diverse literatures on power. It begins by conceptualizing power across a range of academic disciplines, envisioning power as involving both agents (corrective influence) and structures (pervasive influence). It then elaborates different types of power and the interrelationship between different sources of power, with a specific focus on elites, including conceptualizing elite power, resisting elite power, and power frameworks. The Review then examines scholarship relevant to elite power in low-carbon transitions—including the multi-level perspective, Michel Foucault, Antonio Gramsci, Anthony Giddens, Karl Marx, and other contextual approaches—before offering future research directions. The Review concludes that the power relations inherent in low-carbon transitions are asymmetrical but promisingly unstable. By better grappling with power analytically, descriptively, and even normatively, socially just and sustainable energy futures become not only more desirable but also more possible.
Written by Benjamin K. Sovacool and Marie-Claire Brisbois
https://innopaths.eu/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/Elsevier-thumbnail.jpg230230Benjamin K. Sovacool and Marie-Claire Brisboishttps://innopaths.eu/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/innopaths-logo.pngBenjamin K. Sovacool and Marie-Claire Brisbois2019-08-28 18:14:582021-04-29 07:40:15Elite power in low-carbon transitions: A critical and interdisciplinary review